Human life begins at the moment of fertilization because the process of fertilization creates a unique human being with a unique genetic identity. In the process of fertilization, a human sperm cell from the father enters an unfertilized human egg cell of the mother. The genetic material from the sperm cell combines with the genetic material contained in the egg cell. At this point, the fertilized egg cell takes on an unique genetic identity that is distinct from both of his or her parents. The fertilized egg cell will start to divide into multiple cells and is now an human embryo at this point. The newly formed human embryo will develop into a fully formed human being if it implants inside the mother’s womb and does not die prior to birth. What makes the newly formed human embryo human life is his or her unique genetic identity and the ability of the embryo to develop into a complete human organism.
In the Roe v. Wade case, the United States Supreme Court decided that the government’s interest in protecting potential human life gradually grows during the pregnancy. However, because a human embryo is human life and was so from the moment of fertilization, the government has a compelling interest in protecting human life since the moment of fertilization. States should be able to regulate or prohibit abortion procedures from the moment of fertilization because the compelling governmental interest in protecting human life already exists to the extent necessary to warrant the regulation of abortion procedures at the moment of fertilization.